Parquet Hardwood Flooring

Parquet hardwood flooring has a very different look from typical hardwoods. They were originally made up of many small pieces of exotic woods arranged in intricate geometric patterns. Modern parquet hardwood flooring consists of solid tiles of wood pre-arranged in patterns, making it easy to install. Parquet hardwood flooring is generally the cheapest, however it is harder to refinish than other solid wood floors and its life span is relatively shorter.

Parquet hardwood flooring comes in many designs, ranging from the basic parquet, to basket weave and herringbone. They come in large tiles made up of geometric patterns composed of individual wood slats, held in place by a paper or plastic mesh backing. The visual effects of parquet hardwood flooring can be quite stunning, and variety can be brought to the room simply by moving a rug of piece of furniture to expose of cover different patterns.

Parquet flooring can be attached to either a wood or concrete sub-floor, however concrete sub-floors often require an underlay to help compensate for any unevenness. Because the smaller pieces arranged in different directions result in less overall cross-grain expansion, parquet is a good choice in areas where the moisture content of the flooring is expected to change significantly over time.

Parquet hardwood flooring comes in a variety of woods such as oak, cherry, mahogany, beech and walnut. It is a good idea to make a dry run of the pattern you want to lay out by laying a test arrangement before permanent installation.

The wood tiles should be stored in the room they are to be installed in for at least 24 hours so they can acclimate to the temperature and humidity. You should buy about 5% more flooring than you calculate that you will need, to compensate for any mistakes. The extra material, if not needed, could come in handy later in case of damage.

Unlike strip or plank flooring, parquet flooring is laid in two directions at once. Parquet hardwood flooring should be laid by starting in the center of the room and working outwards toward the walls. This establishes a centered and well aligned geometric pattern.

Find the center of the room by measuring from wall to wall. Snap a chalk line between the center of opposite walls, then snap another chalk line between the other two walls. The intersection between the two lines is the center point. Make sure the two intersecting lines form right angles. Lay a test run of parquet along the chalk lines starting at the center, working toward the wall. Adjust the center to keep the tiles on the edges of the room from being cut too thin.

Using a trowel, spread adhesive on a 2 x 2 area at the intersection of the chalk lines and let it thicken and become tacky. Pressing firmly, lay down a tile on the adhesive using the lines for placement. Ensure the placement of the first tile is accurate, as it will determine the layout of the entire floor. Tap the tile into place with a mallet, placing a piece of scrap wood on top to protect the tile. If any adhesive seeps between the tiles, clean with a cloth soaked in solvent. Working toward each wall, fill in one quadrant at a time. To avoid putting your weight on any one tile, use a piece of plywood as a kneeling board.

The last tiles against the wall will need to be cut to fit. They should be cut slightly smaller than the measured space to allow for expansion of the wood. A ” ” space is usually sufficient. Allow the new parquet hardwood floor to dry for a least a day before using.


Real Oak Floors Guide To Wooden Flooring


There are a number of points to check when choosing a new wood floor and some of these will depend on the type of floor available to you:

What is your Sub Floor (existing floor)

Do you have under floor heating?

Is the room a south facing conservatory or basement (below ground level)?

Are you fitting in a bathroom or kitchen?


Your subfloor is very important as this will need to be flat, dry and suitable for laying a wood floor on.

For timber floor subfloors, you must ensure that your floor is flat and that it is free from any type of woodworm or rot. All boards should be securely screwed or nailed down before laying a new wooden floor otherwise boards will start to creak. When you have a timber floor you can nail, glue or float your wood floor (glue tongue and groove together and use an underlay between the two floors)
Chipboard and Plywood Please note that chipboard is not strong enough to nail a wood floor down on (it is fine for gluing or floating). The chipboard easily disintegrates over time therefore the nails in the floor would work loose. Ply board is suitable and can hold nails. Marine ply is recommended for use with a wooden floor.

For laying onto joists, you need to check that these are also free from woodworm or rot and that they are level enough to lay boards onto. Most of the time the existing floor will simply have been pulled up so the joists will be ready to have the new floor laid on top. However you must ensure that all nails have been either pulled out or hammered in fully so they do not protrude. When laying onto joists it is worth remembering that all the solid wood floors and structural engineered floors come with tongue and groove on all 4 sides. It is not necessary to have the ends of the boards finishing on the joists like the original pine floors. The strength of the boards coupled with the tongue and grooves ensure that the flooring is sturdy without finishing on the joists. When laying onto joists you need to nail the floors down.

For concrete floors, When you have an existing or old concrete floor you need to ensure that the floor is flat and is dry. The best way to check the concrete floor for moisture is to use a moisture meter which can be hired or purchased. Existing older concrete floors will not have a damp proof course laid below therefore it is imperative to check for moisture as the concrete can look and feel dry but may still be carrying too much moisture for the wood flooring. The
floor also needs to be level the amount of height difference allowed in the concrete is + / – 2mm per square metre.

There should be no more than this if gluing the flooring down direct, however if using an underlay there is more scope for height difference that can be absorbed by the underlay (NB. too much unevenness in floating floors can cause a bouncy floor). A Damp proof course is recommended to be laid over the concrete to ensure that there is no moisture issues after your new wood floor has been laid. For a newly laid concrete floor you need to follow the following drying times 1 per month or 1mm per day. The concrete will feel dry a long time before this but it will not be safe to lay as there will still be too much moisture for the wooden flooring. A damp proof course should have been laid below the concrete if this is in place, no further dpm will be needed, otherwise a DPM is recommended to be laid over the concrete.

Asphalt or Bitumen floors are generally bitumen floors. Asphalt is a mixture of bitumen and minerals and therefore cannot be glued or nailed onto. Asphalt is often mistaken as the terminology in Europe is different to USA. In USA asphalt is used to tarmacadam the roads however this is a different product to asphalt in the UK.

The asphalt creates a dpm so no moisture can come through so it does not need to be checked for damp if it is in good condition. However it is best to check for cracks and any areas that are uneven as this would need to be levelled and cracks re-covered or checked for damp. You can float a wood floor over asphalt floors. If you have an old parquet floor which has been glued down with bitumen, you would need to remove all existing bitumen before gluing any loose blocks back down.

Existing Tiled floors whether they are quarry tiles or ceramic tiles are often stuck down very sturdily. Where possible it would be best to take the tiles up as you would have a much wider choice of installation methods, however this is a very messy and time consuming job. If laying over tiles the following must be taken into consideration. The floors need to be checked for damp especially with quarry tiles as moisture levels can be high. If the tile surface is uneven, they can be overlaid with plywood to even them out these can be glued down
directly to the tiles. If using 18mm ply the new wooden flooring can be glued, nailed or floated using an underlay. It is also recommended to use a damp proof membrane where possible to ensure no damp comes through to the wooden floor. If you are floating the floor and the tiles are even, it is possible to use a dpm sheet, underlay and float the floors without using ply.

If the subfloor is not suitable, then consider laying ply throughout the area to level it off (18mm ply is needed when the floor is very uneven, although a thinner ply can be used) or lay the floor as a floating floor using underlay. If a concrete floor is uneven, consider using a self levelling compound or a screed to level off, alternatively you can ply out the area as above or lay the floor as a floating floor using underlay. If you need to apply a damp proof course this can be done either by a dpm sheeting or by using a DPM epoxy resin spread over
the floor.

Please note, for existing timber floors, the new boards must be laid at 90 degrees from the existing floor if you want to lay the boards in the same direction then you must ply out the area first. This creates a sturdy floor that cannot move or be prone to creaking.


There are two types of underfloor heating available for use with wooden floors the wet pipe system (where hot water is run through pipes in a screed / base in the floor) or the electric system which comprises either the carbon mats which lay over your sub floor or the cable kit which needs to be laid within a screed. The simplest one to fit if you are deciding to have underfloor heating is the carbon mat system. The mats are laid out over a 6mm depron insulation
board and connected to a thermostat on the wall. The radiant heat can be a primary or secondary heat source (except in conservatories where it is recommended to have an alternate heating system for very cold days). It comes in a 130watt for standard installation or 160watt for colder areas
such as conservatories.

If you have, or are going to have under floor heating it is recommended to use an engineered board rather than a solid. This is due to the stability in the engineered boards. As the boards are made up of either blockboard or cross ply backing which stops the oak from moving with the fluctuating temperatures and humidity. Any engineered board (with any type of real wood top layer) can be used with underfloor heating. If a solid board is to be used, the width of the board should not be more than 5 times the thickness of the board however
this still does not guarantee a problem free floor as movement will still be present in these boards. The reason for this is due to the movement from solid boards which can affect the floor, causing cupping and warping of the boards. Real Oak Floors cannot guarantee any solid floor used with under floor heating.


As with under floor heating, there is a great level of difference with the temperature and humidity in conservatories and basements, therefore an engineered board is recommended for these areas.


Wood floors can be put in bathrooms and kitchens but please note the following advice: For kitchens, the best floor to use is an unfinished floor which can be sealed once laid this will ensure that the joints are protected better from spills and splashes. However an oiled floor can be used but it would be best to apply a second coat of oil once laid to ensure the joints have more protection. for kitchens in regular use or with little ventilation an engineered floor is recommended due to the humidity. For Bathrooms, an engineered floor is recommended and it is also best to lay an unfinished floor which can be sealed once laid this will ensure that the joints are protected better from spills and splashes. Wood floor is not recommended for use in bathrooms where there
are small children (where there is a higher tendency for splashes) and it must be noted that the life of the floor is not as great in bathrooms due to the moisture. Bamboo floors are better suited for bathrooms as they do not expand or contract with moisture.

  1. WOOD FLOORS BOARD TYPES AND FINISHES ENGINEERED AND SOLID BOARDS One of the most commonly asked question is which boards should I get, engineered or solid? Generally the answer depends on the type of room you have see section 1 for specific details. Engineered boards have come a long way in the last few years so it is now impossible to tell whether it is a solid floor or engineered floor once laid. Gone are the days when the engineered boards are all three strip boards and very thin there is now more choice than ever before in the sizes and finishes of the boards. Solid boards are suitable for most situations with the exception of under floor heating, south facing conservatories, below ground rooms (ie cellars) and bathrooms. In all of these circumstances, engineered boards are recommended. Solid boards are made up from just one piece of timber throughout just as its name says. All the solid boards now come with tongue and groove on all 4 sides and these boards can be bevelled or unbevelled. The best installation methods for solid boards is to either nail down, glue down to the sub floor
    or stick down using either adhesive underlay or the underlay with gaps for adhesive to glue down. Solid boards are usually planks however it is possible to get solid boards made with 2 strips. 3 strips and finger jointed which basically means that the width of the plank is made from just one plank however there will be a number of these end to end to make a longer plank. Solid wood boards are the original boards and can be sanded down time after time. They can give a more rustic look (especially unfilled boards) as the knots can go right through the boards. The solid boards can also be adapted to make steps and other accessories without the worry of the ply showing at the edges. The solid wood floors move more than engineered boards so you will find that when the central heating is on in the house and the humidity is lower, you will
    see gaps appearing between the boards. However once the heating is turned off and the humidity is normal, these gaps will disappear. The engineered boards are more sturdy and are less prone to movement due to the structure of the board. They are made up of a layer of real wood glued down onto a blockboard or cross ply backing usually between 10 22mm thick. The layers of real wood vary from 1mm 8mm (the usual size is 4 6mm). The backing is stable and does not move with differing humidity or temperatures. With the thinner layer of real wood on the top, the ply stops the real wood from moving, therefore preventing it from cupping or warping. The thicker (15 – 21/22mm thick) engineered boards can also be nailed directly onto joists making them just as adaptable as the solid wood. The boards are available in planked wood, two strip or three strip. Due to the stability the widths of the boards can be wider than the solid wood currently we have available up to 450mm widths in the engineered board which can be laid
    with the safety that they will not have movement over time. There is a myth with engineered floors that they are not as long lasting as solid boards as they cannot be sanded down as much as the solids. However it is only possible to sand down solid boards to the start of the tongue and groove which is usually around 5-7mm from the top of the board. Therefore the engineered boards with a 6mm can be sanded the same number of times and
    even the 4mm have almost as long a life span. UNFINISHED, OILED OR LACQUERED? The finish of the board is purely a matter of choice and does not depend on the room type. All the finishes available are hard wearing and durable, it is only the final look that changes: Pre-Lacquered Floors Boards which come pre-lacquered have been factory finished with around 5 coats of lacquer to give a hard wearing and perfectly smooth finish. Most of the lacquers are a satin finish however there are some matt lacquers now available. No maintenance needs to be done on these floors only the usual cleaning. Lacquer is another word for varnish they are the same finish. Lacquer sits on the top of the wood floor giving it a protective coat. The sheen on lacquered floors can vary from high gloss to a matt almost oiled look floor. Oiled Floors The oiled floors have a much more natural appearance. The oil soaks into the floor leaving the grainage showing through so the boards feel like natural wood. The oiled floors need maintaining around once per year. One bonus of oiled floors is that if there is a particularly nasty stain in the floor, you can spot sand it out and re-oil which is not possible with pre-lacquered boards. The yearly maintenance on the floors is required to keep them in pristine condition if this is kept up then they will never need to be fully sanded down as spot sanding will keep the marks out. Unfinished Floors When you purchase the floor unfinished it gives you the widest choice of finish you can sand it down once it is in place (if required), then you can choose to stain it, oil or lacquer. The beauty of having the seal of your choice also means that when you need to spot sand an area and refinish, you will be able to match the finish perfectly as you have the original finish. Stained Floors A lot of the stains can be oiled or lacquered over the top, however the woca oils are an oil and colour in one, meaning that when the stain is on, the boards are finished. There is a large choice of stains to use on the floor boards from white washed finished to a very dark antique look finish. Purchasing an unfinished floor gives you the option of staining the boards once the floor is laid so you can check that the colour is correct for the environment. Brushed floors The brushing process of wooden floors gives a much rougher feel to touch. It enhances the grain more than the normal sanded floors. The effect is similar to wire brushing the wood floor along the grain it leaves a grained board which will take a much deeper stain than a similar sanded floor. Aged Flooring These boards have been aged by using distressed boards – usually with dents, chips and a generally “used” look to them. They are not perfect therefore they look as if they have been in the house for a long time. These boards are normally oiled rather than lacquered as this gives a more natural and original look. The edges of the boards are often uneven bevelled for an authentic look. Smoked or fumed Oak floor boards give a darker look with lighter streaks – generally giving a darker, older look which can be used with “distressed” boards or just on its own. These also give the appearance of the original floorboards – originally found in barns where the cattle had been – the ammonia from the animals urine turned the oak a darker colour which gave it the original look. These days a more modern “fumed with ammonia” or oven baked process is used to smoke the boards! Thermo Treated flooring Thermo flooring is similar to smoked oak as it is treated using a heating process which colours the wood. It turns the wood a different colour to smoked oak usually more red-black than brown-black. Brushed and Burnt oak is made by literally burning the top of the board, giving an antique look and darker colour to the boards. The boards have firstly been brushed to give a rougher feel to sanded boards. FITTING METHODS AND THE TOOLS YOU WILL NEED Handling and Storage It is essential that you unload your wooden flooring in dry weather never unload in the rain as the moisture could cause the planks to warp. Your wood flooring should be stored in a dry place at room temperature and if possible should be raised off the ground. You should store your wood flooring in the room that it will be laid for a minimum of 1 week for solid oak so that it has time to acclimatise to the humidity and temperature of the room. Engineered oak does not require acclimatising therefore it does not need to be left. Preparing to lay your flooring The most dangerous enemy of a hardwood floor is moisture. You must ensure that the sub floor is dry. This is especially true when laying a hard wood floor in a new build property where concrete floors will still contain a high level of moisture. Your solid wood flooring should have been allowed sufficient time to acclimatise to the conditions of the room in advance of installation. Any timber existing flooring, joinery or battens should have a moisture content of no more than +2% above the moisture content of the new floor. It is advisable when laying onto existing timber that you ensure it is treated against fungal or insect attack. Concrete or screed should contain a damp proof membrane and have a moisture content of no more than 5%. This is in practice almost impossible to achieve and so additional precautions should be taken to prevent moisture reaching the new floor. Concrete or screed will take approximately 1 day per mm thickness to dry or 1month per 25mm of thickness to dry naturally to a moisture content of 5%. The deeper the concrete slab the longer the period for example a 150mm slab will p

Installing Laminate Flooring On Stairs

Installing laminate flooring on stairs requires more attention be paid to details. Every piece of the stair needs to be cut precisely to achieve the best looking flight of stairs. The stairs consist of three basic parts. The tread ( where you step ), the riser ( the vertical rise ) and the stair nose which is the edging on the front of each stair.

When installing laminate on stairs in most cases the stair nose over laps the laminate and this makes the stair nose raised up about 1/8 to 3/16 of an inch. Consider who lives in the home such as small children or elderly folks. This may be a potential tripping hazard.

The process for installing laminate flooring on stairs consists of four basic steps (no pun intended).

  1. Preparing the stairs
  2. Cutting the over hang off or building the stair out
  3. Cutting the individual parts
  4. Gluing and nailing the treads, risers and stair noses on Preparing the stairs Most likely there will be carpet on the stairs that will need to be removed. The best way to do this is with a pair of pliers. Just grab the carpet with the pliers at the top of the stairs and pull work from the top down until all is removed. Ware gloves when doing this, the staples and tack strip are very sharp. Next pull the padding off the stairs, most often its stapled down also. Remove any tack strip with a pry bar and a hammer. Next remove any staples, pulling each one out can be time consuming. A 4 inch scraper (not a putty knife) with a dull blade works good for this. Pound down any nails sticking up. If there are any squeaks in your stairs now is a good time to put some screws in to tighten them up, three inch drywall screws work good for this. Use the scraper to scrap any paint over spray or clumps of drywall mud off each stair. This will enable the glue to bond to the stairs. Cutting the over hang off or building the stair out Some stairs may have an over hang that may need to be cut off. Or you can fill the space underneath with wood, so the top of the stair is a square edge. To cut the over hang off you will need to measure under each end and transfer this measurement to the top on each side. Draw a line across the top of the stair and cut with a circular saw or a saw zaw. You will not be able to always cut all the way to the ends. In this case it can be broke off and chisel any excess wood. Cutting the individual parts I found the easiest method to install laminate flooring on stairs is to cut all the parts first and then glue and nail them after wards. Start by cutting the first riser at the bottom. First cut the width to fit in the opening. The adjoining walls on either side may not be square, so you may need to cut them at a slight angle to avoid gaps. After you get the riser cut to the correct width you will need to cut the top of the riser to be flush with the tread. Set the riser in place and scribe a line from behind to follow the tread. This can be cut on a table saw. After you cut this set the riser in place and check that it is flush with the tread. The stair nose will rest on the riser and the tread. Cutting the riser flush will ensure that the stair nose sets level when installed. As you proceed up the staircase, you will need to cut a riser and then a tread as the risers will need to rest on the treads in order to cut the risers flush with the top of the stair. The installed riser is going to rest on the tread below. Cutting the treads are pretty much the same as cutting the risers, as far as cutting the sides to make a tight fit. The laminate will be glued so you do not need any expansion gap. You will need to cut the front of the laminate tread so the stair nose over hangs the riser and also over laps the laminate tread. Use a small piece of stair nose as a guide to know where to cut your treads. As you cut each riser and tread number each one for the corresponding stair. After you have all the risers and treads cut you can either cut the stair noses at this point or install the risers and treads first then cut the stair noses. I prefer to cut the stair noses after I install the treads and risers. Cutting the stair nose is just a matter of cutting the ends to the correct angle if any. Gluing and nailing the treads, risers and stair noses on Use construction adhesive to glue the risers and stair nose on. You can also use it to glue the treads on but I prefer to use a wood adhesive to cover the whole tread. Start at the bottom and apply the construction adhesive to the back of the #1 riser. Next set in place and with a nail gun nail it at the very top 3 across ( I use 15 gauge 2 inch nails). The stair nose will cover these nails at the top. Put 3 more nails across about 3/4 of the way down. These nail holes will be filled in with a matching putty or caulking. Always double check your stair noses to make sure they sit level ( front to back). Apply the glue or construction adhesive to the next tread up, stop the glue about 2 inches from the front of the stair. This is where the stair nose will be attached. Set the tread into the glue and check the front edge with the small piece of stair nose to make sure it over hangs the riser and covers the edge of the tread. If satisfied nail in the very front where the stair nose will over lap the nails about 4 across ( I use 18 gauge 2 inch nails here). Also nail along the back as close to the riser as possible. The next riser will be installed on top of the riser covering these nails. With the stair nose cut to the proper size, apply construction adhesive along the 2 inch space on the edge of the stair and the top of the installed riser. Be generous with this glue, you want the stair nose to be glued very good here. Set the stair nose in place and shoot four 2 inch nails in the center of the stair nose. One on each end about 2 inches in and 2 evenly spaced between the ends. Fill any nail holes with putty or caulking. Continue up the stair case , after you have all the stairs glued and nailed try not to use the stairs any more then you need to. The glue will be set up good in about 24 hours. Take your time and you will have a beautiful looking stair case.